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The 65th congress of phenomenology

Phenomenology of religionmethodological approach to the study of religion that emphasizes the standpoint of the believer. Phenomenology of religion is distinct from historicalsociologicalanthropologicalphilosophicaland theological approaches to the study of religion.

Unlike them, it treats religion as a phenomenon that cannot be explained in terms of any particular aspect of human society, cultureor thought—e.

Phenomenology of religion is also comparative, seeking out aspects of religious life that are, its proponents suggest, universal or essential rather than applicable only to particular traditions. In his book Das Heilige ; The Idea of the Holythe German theologian Rudolf Otto wrote that all religions arise from the experience of the numinous, which he characterized as the mysterium tremendum et fascinansthe transcendent mystery that humans find both terrifying and compelling.

Mircea Eliadea Romanian-born scholar who fostered the study of the history of religions at the University of Chicagoconstructed another influential notion of the sacred. In The Sacred and the Profane and subsequent works, he demonstrated how hierophanies have influenced the ways in which religious traditions distinguish between sacred and profane spaces and interpret and measure the flow of time. Both Otto and Eliade viewed the sacred as something not only existential and experiential but also static and transhistorical, unaffected by historical change.

Lived Experience, Epoché, and Phenomenological Reduction

The 20th-century British scholar of religion Ninian Smart developed a phenomenological model that featured a more dynamic vision of the sacred that could explain the diversity among religions, much of which it attributed to historical and cultural differences. Smart proposed that the sacred manifests itself in human life in seven dimensions: 1 the doctrinal or philosophical, 2 the mythical, 3 the ethical4 the experiential, 5 the ritual6 the social, and 7 the material. However it may be conceived by adherents of a particular religion, the sacred is present in, mediated by, and expressed through these seven dimensions, according to Smart.

The most prevalent and substantial criticism of phenomenology of religion concerns its attempt to seek out and present universal or essential aspects of religious life. The holy or the sacred may fit certain aspects of ChristianityJudaismor even Islam but may be inappropriate to the study of some forms of Buddhism or of some aspects of Chinese folk religions.

Phenomenology of religion. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Methodology The sacred Criticism. He earned B. See Article History.

the 65th congress of phenomenology

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the 65th congress of phenomenology

Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The history of religions and the phenomenology of religion are generally understood by scholars to be nonnormative—that is, they attempt to delineate facts, whether historical or structural, without judging them from a Christian or other standpoint.

At any rate, their tasks are…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!

Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About.The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in The Senate had a Democratic majority, and the House had a Republican plurality but the Democrats remained in control with the support of the Progressives and Socialist Representative Meyer London.

Because of the 17th Amendmentstarting in U. Senators were directly elected instead of by the state legislatures. However, this did not affect the terms of U. Senators whose terms had started before that Amendment took effect, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in ; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in ; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

United States Capitol Alabama [ edit ] 2. John H. Bankhead D 3. Oscar W. Underwood D Arizona [ edit ] 1. Henry F. Ashurst D 3. Marcus A. Smith D Arkansas [ edit ] 2. Joseph T. Robinson D 3. Lee S. Overman D California [ edit ] 1.

Hiram Johnson R [c] 3. James D. Phelan D Colorado [ edit ] 2. John F. Shafroth D 3. Charles S. Thomas D Connecticut [ edit ] 1. George P.Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object.

An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning which represents the object together with appropriate enabling conditions. Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics.

Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others. Phenomenological issues of intentionality, consciousness, qualia, and first-person perspective have been prominent in recent philosophy of mind. Phenomenology is commonly understood in either of two ways: as a disciplinary field in philosophy, or as a movement in the history of philosophy. The discipline of phenomenology may be defined initially as the study of structures of experience, or consciousness.

Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first person point of view. This field of philosophy is then to be distinguished from, and related to, the other main fields of philosophy: ontology the study of being or what isepistemology the study of knowledgelogic the study of valid reasoningethics the study of right and wrong actionetc.

The historical movement of phenomenology is the philosophical tradition launched in the first half of the 20 th century by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, et al. In that movement, the discipline of phenomenology was prized as the proper foundation of all philosophy—as opposed, say, to ethics or metaphysics or epistemology.

The methods and characterization of the discipline were widely debated by Husserl and his successors, and these debates continue to the present day. The definition of phenomenology offered above will thus be debatable, for example, by Heideggerians, but it remains the starting point in characterizing the discipline.

However, our experience is normally much richer in content than mere sensation. Phenomenology as a discipline has been central to the tradition of continental European philosophy throughout the 20 th century, while philosophy of mind has evolved in the Austro-Anglo-American tradition of analytic philosophy that developed throughout the 20 th century.

Yet the fundamental character of our mental activity is pursued in overlapping ways within these two traditions. Accordingly, the perspective on phenomenology drawn in this article will accommodate both traditions. The main concern here will be to characterize the discipline of phenomenology, in a contemporary purview, while also highlighting the historical tradition that brought the discipline into its own. Basically, phenomenology studies the structure of various types of experience ranging from perception, thought, memory, imagination, emotion, desire, and volition to bodily awareness, embodied action, and social activity, including linguistic activity.

These make up the meaning or content of a given experience, and are distinct from the things they present or mean. The basic intentional structure of consciousness, we find in reflection or analysis, involves further forms of experience. Furthermore, in a different dimension, we find various grounds or enabling conditions—conditions of the possibility—of intentionality, including embodiment, bodily skills, cultural context, language and other social practices, social background, and contextual aspects of intentional activities.

Thus, phenomenology leads from conscious experience into conditions that help to give experience its intentionality. Traditional phenomenology has focused on subjective, practical, and social conditions of experience. Recent philosophy of mind, however, has focused especially on the neural substrate of experience, on how conscious experience and mental representation or intentionality are grounded in brain activity.

It remains a difficult question how much of these grounds of experience fall within the province of phenomenology as a discipline. Cultural conditions thus seem closer to our experience and to our familiar self-understanding than do the electrochemical workings of our brain, much less our dependence on quantum-mechanical states of physical systems to which we may belong.

The cautious thing to say is that phenomenology leads in some ways into at least some background conditions of our experience. The discipline of phenomenology is defined by its domain of study, its methods, and its main results. Phenomenology studies structures of conscious experience as experienced from the first-person point of view, along with relevant conditions of experience.

The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, the way it is directed through its content or meaning toward a certain object in the world.

We all experience various types of experience including perception, imagination, thought, emotion, desire, volition, and action. Thus, the domain of phenomenology is the range of experiences including these types among others. Experience includes not only relatively passive experience as in vision or hearing, but also active experience as in walking or hammering a nail or kicking a ball.

The range will be specific to each species of being that enjoys consciousness; our focus is on our own, human, experience.

the 65th congress of phenomenology

Not all conscious beings will, or will be able to, practice phenomenology, as we do. Conscious experiences have a unique feature: we experience them, we live through them or perform them.

Other things in the world we may observe and engage. But we do not experience them, in the sense of living through or performing them.This is beyond dispute for most. What are contested are the social and ethical implications of these changes. This is indeed a vast intellectual landscape, which can obviously not be explored here in its fullness. This entry is about just one particular perspective on this landscape. It is primarily concerned with the phenomenological approach to interpreting information technology and its social and ethical implications.

It should be noted from the start that there is not a unified phenomenological tradition or approach to information technology in particular, or other phenomena more generally.

The phenomenological tradition consists of many different approaches that share certain characteristics certain family resemblances, one might say but not all. We will elaborate more precisely what this means in section 2 below.

the 65th congress of phenomenology

It can be said that information technology has become in a very real sense ubiquitous. Most everyday technologies such as elevators, automobiles, microwaves, watches, and so forth depend on microprocessors for their ongoing operation.

Most organizations and institutions have become reliant on their information technology infrastructure to a lesser or greater degree. Indeed information technology is seen by many as a cost-efficient way to solve a multitude of problems facing our complex contemporary society.

One can almost say that information technology has become construed as the default technology for solving a whole raft of technical and social problems such as health provision, security, governance, etc. For most it seems obvious that information technology has made it possible for humans to continue to construct increasingly complex systems of coordination and social ordering—systems without which contemporary society would not be able to exist in its present form.

To say the least, we, as contemporary human beings, have our manner of being made possible through a rather comprehensive entanglement with information and communication technology. Indeed, the economic, organizational and social benefit of information technology is not widely disputed. The dispute is more often about the way information technology is changing or transforming the social domain, and in particular, the ethical domain.

This dispute is largely centered around different ways of conceptualizing and interpreting the nature of our entanglement with information technology. It seems obvious that a world with information technology is somehow different from a world without information technology. But what is the difference?A different type of phenomenology, the phenomenology of essences, developed from a tangential continuation of that of the Logische Untersuchungen.

Moritz Geiger applied the new approach particularly to aesthetics and Adolf Reinach to the philosophy of law. A Polish philosopher, Roman Ingardendid major work in structural ontology and analyzed the structures of various works of art in its light; Hedwig Conrad-Martius, a cosmic realist at the University of Munichworked intensively in the ontology of nature; and others made comparable contributions in other fields of philosophy.

From then on he pursued the course of phenomenology with the greatest interest, and from he belonged to the narrow circle of students and followers of the movement. To be sure, there appeared very early a difference between Husserl and Heidegger. Discussing and absorbing the works of the important philosophers in the history of metaphysics was, for Heidegger, an indispensable task, whereas Husserl repeatedly stressed the significance of a radically new beginning and—with few exceptions among them Descartes, John LockeDavid Humeand Kant —wished to bracket the history of philosophy.

In it, phenomenology was understood as a methodological concept—a concept that was conceived by Heidegger in an original way and resulted from his questioning back to the meanings of the Greek concepts of phainomenon and logos. His manner of questioning can be defined as hermeneutical in that it proceeds from the interpretation of the human situation.

What he thematized is thus the explanation of what is already understood.

Phenomenology of religion

By conceiving of Dasein as being-in-the-world, Heidegger made the ancient problem concerning the relationship between subject and object superfluous. The basic structures of Dasein are primordial moodness Befindlichkeitunderstanding Verstehenand logos Rede. These structures are, in turn, founded in the temporalization of Daseinfrom which future, having-been pastand present originate.

Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Later developments Phenomenology of essences A different type of phenomenology, the phenomenology of essences, developed from a tangential continuation of that of the Logische Untersuchungen. Load Next Page. More About.Search with initial or firstname to single out others. Sign in Create an account.

Syntax Advanced Search. Options 1 filter applied. Export this page: Choose a format. Sign in to use this feature. Other categories were found but are not shown. Use more specific keywords to find others, or browse the categories. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Husserl: Phenomenology in Continental Philosophy. Martin Heidegger in Continental Philosophy.

Edmund Husserl in Continental Philosophy. Husserl: Phenomenology, Misc in Continental Philosophy. Off-campus access. Using PhilPapers from home?

Create an account to enable off-campus access through your institution's proxy server. Be alerted of all new items appearing on this page. Editorial team. Restrictions pro authors only online only open access only published only filter by language Configure languages here. Viewing options. World Congress of Phenomenology [5]. Transcendental Phenomenology [1]. Hegelian Phenomenology [1]. Of Phenomenology [1].Conference date s : November 18, - November 20, Go to the conference's page.

Human relations with nature are a complex issue. In the firts place, from an anthropological point of view: it may be argued that human beings are an element of nature, or alternatively that a part, at least, of human beings is outside nature, or even that the totality of what a human being is must be explained by principles that contradict the principles in action in the natural world.

At the frontiers of the phenomenological thought, in the relationship between phenomenology and neurosciences and biology, Humberto Maturana's work testifies the permanence of the issue.

But the aforementioned relation can still be addressed from a different point-of-view. The human being interferes with natural processes, introducing in them a factor of "disorder" coming from the outside. Since the second half of the twentieth century, and to the extent that nature constitutes the environment in which human beings live and reproduce as a species, important reflections on the limits placed on this interference have been carried out.

This reflection, prolonging investigations on the nature of technique that inside and outside the phenomenological movement go back at least to the period between the two great world wars, has more recently raised new approaches. Namely, at the ethical level, claims about non-human nature as a subject of rights, or about the rights of future generations to inherit an environment that they can inhabit.

We invite participants to submit papers to the V Iberian Work-shop on Phenomenology and to the VI Congress of the Portuguese Society of Phenomenological Philosophy that critically consider the follwing topics:. Sign in.

Edit this event. Submission deadline: June 15, Conference date s : November 18, - November 20, Details Human relations with nature are a complex issue.

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We invite participants to submit papers to the V Iberian Work-shop on Phenomenology and to the VI Congress of the Portuguese Society of Phenomenological Philosophy that critically consider the follwing topics: 1. Humanity and animality.

Natural and artificial; nature and culture. Body and space. Phenomenology and Life Sciences. Ethics of the environment vs. Phenomenology and Philosophy of Nature. Proposals should be sent to: affen gmail. Supporting material Add supporting material slides, programs, etc. Your message has been sent. Thank you for reporting this event. An administrator of the site will review it.



27.10.2020 at 10:12 pm

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